The Kyoto Protocol, the international agreement that preceded the Paris agreement, was also “under” the UNFCCC, although its provisions were largely followed by those of the Paris Agreement. In accordance with the Vienna Convention on Treaty Law, “ratification” defines the international act under which a country consents to membership in an international agreement. Ratification is proven by the filing of a ratification instrument with the custodian. This gives the contracting parties the time necessary to obtain approval of the agreement on the national territory and to adopt all the national legislation necessary to give effect to this agreement. At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  But that means it will be in effect before countries meet again for their first major UN climate meeting since Paris – and before the US elections on November 8. The Paris Agreement (the Paris Agreement)  is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of parties held at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and agreed on 12 December 2015.   Since February 2020, all 196 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement and 189 have left.
 Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, Iran and Turkey are the only major emitters. In addition, countries are working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   He cautioned, however, that work to implement the agreement was still to come. “We must now move from words to action and make Paris a reality. We need all hands on deck – every part of society must be mobilized to reduce emissions and help communities adapt to the inevitable climate effects. For more details, see the UNFCCC briefing note, which came into force of the Paris Agreement: legal requirements and implications. The CLIMA COP22 conference, to be held in Marrakech from 7 to 18 November 2016, is also the scene of the first meeting of the members of the umbrella organisation of the Paris Agreement, the CMA. The meeting is scheduled for November 15. Given that less than half of the signatories have ratified the agreement to date, it is very likely that the CMA1 (the first meeting of the CMA) will be suspended.
“At the recent pre-COP meetings, it was decided that this year`s CMA meeting would be interrupted to allow time for the other signatories to ratify the agreement and be part of the decision-making process,” said Ravishankar Prasad, a joint secretary at the Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Climate Change.